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  • Safety and Health of Building Materials and Products

    Safety and Health of Building Materials and Products

    Perhaps one of the aspects that is often overlooked or less overlooked in the design of a structure is the choice of materials and construction products. The importance of choosing the right construction products is very important and this plays an important role in the success or failure of a building. Even the use of standard building products has a significant impact on home prices, and each of us has probably heard about the quality of our housing and its price at least once when buying a home or mortgage and renting it.
    In our country, the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development has enacted the technical and engineering aspects of building and national regulations governing the technical and engineering aspects of building, and compliance with these rules is essential for all construction activists.
    Although these regulations are presented in various categories such as the standards defined for each material, its specifications and technical specifications, its compatibility with the building and its type of packaging and maintenance, we present in this article from the Keyboard Journal to Materials Safety and Considerations Environmental Some of the building products used in building a building are:
    A few items of construction products
    Generally, for the construction of a structure, the technical specifications of construction products must be standardized and materials that have quality certification must be used.
    Hydraulic Cement
    This type of cement is very sticky and hardens in combination with water or its proximity (also air). Thus, by definition, hydraulic cement is waterproof and does not perish in the face of water.

    Materials safety and environmental considerations of hydraulic cement
    This type of cement contains a small amount of live lime and other alkaline oxides, so it can be harmful to the skin and eyes, and dust in the air can cause respiratory problems. Therefore, cement should not be dispersed in the air.
    When using cement, people need to wear gloves, glasses, masks, and long sleeves to prevent it from impacting different parts of the face and body.

    If the cement comes in contact with damp skin or eyes, it should be washed off with plenty of clean water as soon as possible. In case of prolonged exposure to cement, it is advisable to use dilute vinegar solution to wash the skin after the area has been rinsed.
    Plaster and its products
    Plaster is a building adhesive that is white in color, if pure. If gypsum is cooked at low temperature and in laboratory conditions, gypsum is obtained.
    Material Safety and Environmental Considerations of Building Plaster
    In structures that use building plaster, workers also use shoes, protective boots, gloves, masks and safety clothing. Also, be careful when loading the construction plaster so that the envelopes are not torn and dust is not created.

    Building plaster compatibility with other materials
    Building plaster products, especially in wet areas, should be covered with stainless steel if exposed to steel.
    Building plaster and its products in related areas, such as the northern cities of the country, should not be directly adjacent to concrete or cement products.
    Construction mortars
    Generally, a paste that is created by mixing adhesive and filler is called fresh mortar. This adhesive can be cement paste and the filling material can be like fine aggregates.

    Mortar is used in construction to glue building materials together. Mortar provides the necessary bedding for plastering, plastering and bonding.
    Materials safety and environmental considerations of building mortars
    Since lime mortar is often used in construction, hydrated lime is best used, and due to lime damage to the skin and eyes, it is necessary to consider the safety of materials and individuals and to avoid lime contact with the working skin. Prevent action.
    Compatibility
    Lime, due to its composition of ingredients, causes corrosion of metals such as lead, aluminum and zinc. For this reason, it is necessary to coat metal materials with appropriate materials before placing them in limestone mortar.
    Building stones
    Stones are one of the most commonly used materials in construction. Sometimes stones are used as blocks and sometimes cut to decorate the floor and floor.

    Natural stone consists of one or more minerals and is a synthetic stone made from a mixture of aggregates, adhesives and additives.
    Materials safety and environmental considerations of masonry stone
    Cutting stones should be done indoors using water.
    The use of stones in buildings should never endanger the health and health of people and the environment. If it is likely that harmful radiation is emitted from the stone, it is necessary to examine and test the stone.
    Stones are compatible with all construction products.
    Ceramic tile
    This product is used for floor and wall covering and decorative items. Ceramic tile is manufactured with different properties and systems and is a combination of different minerals.
    Materials Safety and Environmental Ceramic Tile
    Glazed tiles contain some compounds such as lead oxide and cadmium that are harmful to the environment.
    Warehousing and painting of tiles should include safety helmets, work shoes and boots, and staff should be provided with personal protective equipment.

    Like stone, tiles are no longer incompatible with other building products.
    Bitumen
    Bitumen

  • Different types of roofs in different structures

    Different types of roofs in different structures

    The roof is one of the most important parts of the building, which is executed in various ways. Part of the building must have the necessary resistance to the forces in order not to be damaged. Different roof slab systems are used by engineers and builders, including the following: Concrete Slab Roof Slab system is implemented in buildings that are very important. For example, buildings built in large industrial centers have concrete slab roofs. This type of roof is made of concrete and reinforcement and most engineers use it in their designs. Slabs on these ceilings are part of the structure that is made of concrete and steel. The concrete slab has a thickness of 1 to 2 cm and runs on the floor. The weight of the concrete slab roof is high and its implementation is costly compared to other roofs. Benefits of this type of roof include high resistance to earthquake shocks, long life, acoustic and thermal resistance and material savings. Block joist roof Block joist roof is one of the most common types of roofs in which the joists act as a side beam and the gap between them is filled with the block. In this ceiling the blocks have no structural role. This type of roof is used in steel, concrete and brick buildings. The joist roof is light weight and has the necessary strength against horizontal forces. This roof does not require any under-roof jacks and its roof and skeleton will be integrated. The use of concrete blocks instead of tensile concrete has made this roof a cost-effective ceiling that is expanding day by day. Steel deck roof This type of roof is made using trapezoidal galvanized sheets and its components include galvanized sheet, flushing, stud, rebar and concrete. It has a very light weight and is economically viable to operate. With this system, roofing and concrete can be performed simultaneously on all floors. Steel deck roofs can be a good replacement for block joist roofs. One of the benefits of this roof is the safety at work, because once the galvanized sheets are attached to the structure, a seamless surface is created that workers can safely work on. Steps of Steel Deck Roof Implementation How to apply a steel deck roof in cold rolling stages, respectively, involves transferring steel sheets to the project site, installing steel sheets, fixing steel sheets, stud mounting, rebar mounting and concrete casting. Be it. Types of steel deck There are various types of steel deck available in the market. Examples include composite steel decks, long-span decks, and cell decks. Role of Roofing on steel deck roof Roofing is important when the steel deck is mounted on structural beams. Anchors are installed by electric arc welding. Disadvantages of Steel Deck Ceiling In the initial section, the advantages of a steel deck ceiling are discussed. The construction of the steel deck roof also has its disadvantages. For example, the implementation of a steel deck roof requires special arrangements. So it can be said that it is not an easy task and it is easy to implement. One of the most notable disadvantages of using a steel deck roof is their tremor. Price of steel deck The cost of executing a steel roof varies according to the space of the desired space. Chromite joist roof These are a type of block joist roof that is executed using an open metal joist. On the ceiling of the chrome joist, the space between the joists will be filled with polystyrene, cement block, composite or any other filler. They have high cohesion and rigidity, and because of the need for candlesticks, they have a high speed of execution. Chromite joists are lighter in weight than the conventional block joists, reducing the weight of the structure. A strap on the lower wing and a bent rebar are used to run the roof. Waffle ceiling Waffle ceiling or double slab ceiling is a ceiling that is made using a pot slab system. These ceilings are also called a pot or lattice ceiling. This roof is similar to a double slab and has a lower running cost than other bulk and steel deck roofs. In addition, the time to run the waffle roof is shorter due to the need for no reinforcement bars and to be attached to the beams. Integrated concreting without the addition of a lubricant is another advantage of this roof. Waffle Roof Implementation The Waffle Roof Implementation Method consists of five steps, namely roof repairs, waffle molding, roof reinforcement, concrete molding and trimming. Ubot Roof Ubot is used to lighten the roof slabs. The appearance of the hubs is reticular. Ubits are not constitutive elements of the structure and are used only to remove concrete and create a hole in the slab. Running a Ubot Ceiling When executing a Ubot ceiling, you must first close the bottom bed frame. The next step is to lower the armature grid to the bottom. After doing this, the Ubot templates are arranged according to the executable map. The reinforcing grid is then closed over the slab, after which the first layer is concreted, followed by the second layer concreting, which is the complementary layer concreting. After finishing the concrete, open the floor molds. Disadvantages of Ubot Ceiling Such as the disadvantages of using Ubot templates can be sensitive

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