Understanding the stages of building from zero to one hundred

We all live in safe, comfortable homes, and usually when we walk into a building when the building is fully built, but many of us may not know how to build a home. For many of us, there may be a question as to what are the stages of construction and what to do at each stage. Many people who own a land, never having thought of building a building on their land because of the constant fear of getting into the construction phase, are always afraid. In this article, we are going to explain the steps of building from zero to 100.

Steps of building a building;
Pushing or pinning is one of the steps of building construction and is an operation to strengthen the building’s veneer. The legs are parts of a building that move the forces of the building to the ground, thereby reducing the vibration intensity and strengthening the building. The foundation operation must first be excavated; excavation is the removal of a large volume of soil, which results in a very large hole at least half a meter deep throughout the earth.
If the height of the building to be constructed is not too high, low-level excavation is also called superficial excavation. This type of excavation can sometimes be done manually even with a pick and shovel. Deep construction is required for the construction of large buildings and tall towers, which will be done using excavators and drilling machines. Excavation is done to ensure that potential land meetings are held; in this case they are said to be excavated until they reach pristine land.

In the pouring operation, the primary concrete does not come into contact with the soil directly; instead, a low layer of cement is called “cement except”, and then the foundations are laid on it. This will minimize the chance of corrosion and erosion of the legs. At this point, a map of the building where the foundations and other items are marked on the paper is also executed on the ground.

Steps of building construction; building reinforcement
Reinforcement is one of the most important stages of building construction which, if not done properly, threatens the strength of the building. The types of forces applied to concrete can be divided into compressive and tensile forces. The compressive strength of concrete is defined as the resistance that the concrete exhibits to its perpendicular forces. Tensile strength is also related to the resistance in which the forces are reciprocated into the concrete. Concrete has high compressive strength but is very fragile and weak against tensile forces.
Reinforcement as one of the stages of building construction is precisely for this purpose to increase the tensile strength of concrete. Reinforcing bars are joined by welding or metal fastening to increase the tensile strength of the concrete. In fact, all tensile forces applied to the building are inserted into the bars. For small concrete construction, reinforcements with a diameter of 12 mm or less are used; however, for large concrete structures 13 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm diameters are used.

Reinforcement is used as one of the stages of construction in a concrete building and is of particular sensitivity, so the error rate should be as low as possible, otherwise it would pose a threat to the safety of the building.

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Process of building; molding and concrete building
Molding is another process of building a concrete building that uses wooden or metal pieces to form concrete. In the concrete stage, the concrete is soft before being hardened and may collapse; therefore, the presence of molds ensures that the concrete retains its shape until hardened and with high resistance to cohesion.
At this point, the molds must be carefully mounted and tightened; otherwise they may open during operation due to pressures and may damage the concrete. In Iran, the use of wooden molds for concrete building concrete is more common; since mold boards may adhere to wet concrete at the time of molding, surface them with special greasy oils to prevent this from happening. Also, greasing the boards will prevent the moisture of the concrete from spreading to the wood and make the concrete firmly firm.
Molding is also particularly sensitive during the construction process; for example, when lubricating the molds, it is important to ensure that the oil does not spread to the reinforcement; . The molding for the different parts of the building is done in certain ways; these are: columns, foundations, main beams and ceiling and all of them must be molded.

Construction stages; steel structure of the building
In this section, we will explain how to install steel structure in non-concrete buildings. It should be noted that all stages of construction in concrete and metal building are the same and the only difference between these two types is in the skeletal stage. In this method, columns, bridges and beams are first constructed and then stairs are placed between the floors. Columns are made before other parts.
The types of columns in a steel structure are divided into three categories depending on the load on them:
The first batch is the middle columns centered on the square with the total load applied to them.
The second batch is the sidebars, which are cut in half.
The third category is the corner columns, which are accessed a quarter of the time.
In executing the steel framework, the columns must be carefully welded together, and any pores in the welds can interfere with the overall strength of the skeleton. Metal columns should also be pre-stained with stainless steel. If the stainless steel is not used to cover the columns, it will subsequently oxidize or rust, resulting in corrosion, which destroys their strength.

Construction stages; vector molding and finishing works
At this point, the jaws are placed beneath the molds to withstand the forces for a specified period of time until the molds become firm. After executing the steel structure or molding in the concrete building, it is the staircase and the creation of pavilions. Wall and ceiling insulation should then be installed, including acoustic and thermal insulation. The insulation is usually carried out within a short period of time in the construction process, followed by various plumbing and installations.
After the piping is completed and the pipes are insulated, it is time to place the pottery and the main materials in the walls. Concrete is sprayed on the walls where the work is completed. This is usually done with special machines that push the concrete out. However, in some cases for small buildings this may be done manually. Bleaching is another process of building after concrete spraying, and it can be said that the final work on the walls and ceiling is done at this stage. Finally, exterior design is based on previous designs and installation of accessories such as boilers, cabinets and more.

Some important points
It is necessary to explain that prior permission for the construction process must be obtained from the relevant institutions. The building permit is one of the most important basic permits that must be obtained before construction begins; otherwise, the municipality will prevent any construction operations.
Another point to note is the comparison between the concrete structure and the steel structure; each has advantages and disadvantages. For example, the steel structure is less resistant to fire and heat, but on the other hand it is much faster than the concrete structure and will speed up the construction process faster because the steel structure can be run simultaneously in all parts. Be. The cost of steel used in the steel structure is higher than that of steel in concrete construction; also, since mortgages on construction projects are paid on completion of the construction process, concrete buildings can be repaid after the completion of each floor. Received and financed the construction of the other floors.

However, in buildings constructed of steel, the relevant loans can only be obtained at the end of the entire construction. Steel structures have longer lifespan than concrete structures and also have decay value, meaning that when steel buildings are demolished, steel skeletons can be sold as second-hand, but there is nothing to demolish concrete buildings. . Given the issues raised, it is not absolutely possible to choose between these two types of structures, but it must be determined depending on the type of building and its type of use.

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