Types of building foundations based on consumables

The foundation of a building, called the foundation or foundation, is the part of the structure that is in contact with the soil and, as a load member, carries the weight of the building to the ground. The foundation stabilizes the structure and prevents it from falling. The connection of a building to the ground is made by the founders and is located between the building and the ground. The foundations are designed and constructed based on the soil properties beneath them and the weight of the structure. Imagining a building without a foundation is impossible because the absence of a foundation leads to a landfall and the structure cracks. The foundations increase building resistance against loads such as the weight of walls, columns, ceilings, wind and earthquakes. They distribute the excess load to the building and transport it to the ground. Pieces are categorized into different types according to the materials consumed and the method of manufacture. In this post by the builder, we first introduce the types of foundations and its reinforcement and then introduce the types of foundations based on consumables.

What is a foundation?
The foundation is one of the first and most basic stages of construction whereby the weight of the building is transferred from the pillars used in construction to the ground and surrounding soil. The type and dimensions of the foundation vary according to the type of building used and the amount of forces applied, the type of soil, and the climatic conditions and are divided into three categories: surface foundation, deep foundation, and special foundation. Below we will explain each of them.

Types of building foundations based on consumables

Surface foundation
Surface foundation is one of the most common foundations used in construction. The way this foundation works is generally less than their width. In the implementation of surface foundation, the excavation process is first carried out and the foundation is passed through inappropriate surface layers. If there is a need for underground floor construction, more drilling will be done.

Deep foundation
As its name implies, this foundation is executed in deep layers. Surface soils do not have the strength needed to withstand the forces involved. Therefore, the depth of the work must be such that the force is transferred to the hard layers beneath. In general, deep foundation is divided into two categories: thick system and candle foundation system.

Candle Foundation
The most common types of deep foundations are candle foundations. The candle is called a tall, columnar structure that is small in diameter and thin. By placing it inside the soil, this structure transfers the weight of the structure to the underside of the soil. The candle foundation itself is divided into three categories: throwing candle, thrown candle and thrown candle.

Concrete, steel, and wood are used in the construction of the candle-piercing foundation. These piles are pre-made structures that are installed on the site after manufacture. Candle

In-molding is also known as concrete pile. Implementation of this foundation model is that the pile will create a hole inside the hole to the required depth and then fill the hole with concrete. Such foundations are both accessible and executable. An example of these foundations is that the piles are dug directly. Another example is that the candles must be molded first and then used in the execution. These candles have one or more protrusions and are also known as flat candles.

The third category of candle foundations called molded candle holders has the same benefits as bump candle and molded candle.

Thickness systems for deep foundation implementation include deep foundations and kaisons. This system is used to build heavy structures such as bridge stands and oil rigs.

Special Foundation
Special foundations include floating foundations, cell and shell foundations, and steel or profile foundations.

Floating foundations are used when deep layers are segregated or weak. Cellular and shell foundations are used based on the required function, the shape of the foundation, the hardness of the underground floors. Steel foundations or profiles are used to build structures that have high force output and are hard and rock based.


Foundation reinforcement
Reinforcement is one of the most important components in concrete buildings. Proper implementation of reinforcement is of great importance and sensitivity. Because in many cases the foundation resistance is provided by reinforcement. There are important points in performing the reinforcement that should be given special attention. For example, it should be noted that no rust or oil impregnated reinforcement should be used. Therefore, they should be examined before use.

Reinforcement is divided into two categories: longitudinal or main reinforcement and transverse or bent reinforcement. Transverse reinforcements or hammocks are used to maintain longitudinal reinforcement. Their use also prevents bending of longitudinal reinforcement by pressure. Other notable considerations are the use of proper spacing. This should be a maximum of 1 cm. Failure to observe the proper distance may cause the concrete to fall.

The longitudinal reinforcement is applied horizontally in two rows above and below the foundation. When performing longitudinal reinforcement, care must be taken to prevent rust and corrosion.

Types of building foundations based on consumables

Foundation Vault
The base armature used to fasten the upper armature is known as the arch. Therefore, it can be said that the importance of using arches is to maintain the temporary stability of the upper reinforcement. The height and width of the pedestals, the width of the vault and their distance from each other should be determined based on the dimensions of the foundation and with regard to the amount of upper rebar force that supports the weight of the arch. In order to prevent the arches from getting out during concrete installation and when reinforcing them, their spacing must be properly selected.

The stone foundation
The stone foundation is made of various types of stone as its name implies. Natural stones are used to make this kind of foundation, but not every stone is suitable. The stone used for foundations must be healthy and have a smooth surface, as rough and circular stones make the building loose and unstable. The stone foundations have a wider surface than the wall on which they are made, using two types of mortar. If the load on the foundations is high, cement sand mortar is used but for low loads, mud and lime mortar are used. Affordable stones are readily available for foundry making and can be made easily. Stone foundations are used in single-storey structures and in the enclosure walls.

Concrete foundation
Concrete is one of the strongest and most durable building materials that can be used to build the foundation for structural stability. In fact, the best type of foundation are concrete foundations, so today the buildings are laid with reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete is used in the construction of concrete and metal skeleton structures. This type of foundation is made of stairs, sloping and… and in order to increase its resistance against heavy loads, the concrete base is reinforced with steel bars in two directions. To make the concrete foundation, first cover the floor with concrete or low-concrete cement of 2 cm. In doing so, the soil and the main concrete are separated and the surface is leveled for concreting. Afterwards, the concrete is molded and poured into it, except inside the foundation. The concrete is shaken well and crushed. This action is continued until the concrete has fallen. Finally, after a day of loading on the wake. If using reinforced concrete, concrete should be inserted after the rebar is inserted into the mold.

Metal wick
Metallic foundations are used when the soil compressive strength is low and the loads are high. The steel foundations are mainly used for steel columns. The use of metal in the construction of foundations is not economically feasible, hence the rate of construction of reinforced concrete foundations is higher than in steel foundations in the construction industry. To fabricate the wedge with a steel grid, a trench is drilled to a depth of 1 to 2.5 meters, then the floor is regulated. After that, 2cm thick concrete is poured onto the trench and compacted. In addition, a 2 cm layer of low grade concrete is placed on the previous concrete. The steel beams are then spaced at a specified distance on this concrete layer and the gap between them is filled with concrete. The first row of steel beams can also be replaced when necessary. Finally, all parts are filled with concrete and the structure is laid on this foundation.

You’re looking
Shafta is a kind of dough made of sand, soil, water and lime. Shafting is one of the simplest types of foundations in construction, often for low-rise buildings made of brick. To perform a honeycomb run, the shaft is first trimmed and then smoothed to a surface of 1 to 2 cm and left for a day to absorb water. They are then crushed and compacted using a weight. This will continue until the desired height is reached.

Brick foundation
Bricks are used to build foundations if the building is small and the load on the foundations is low. To save the brick, the foundation can be made as a staircase, in which case the load is transferred to the ground at an angle of 2 degrees. Brick paving is about 1 to 4 cm larger than the wall width.

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