• Introduction to all types of building materials

    Introduction to all types of building materials

    Building materials are materials that are used in the construction and production of various structures. A variety of materials are used in the construction of a building, whether natural or artificial, raw or mixed, each with unique characteristics. Familiarity with these materials is essential for drawing and executing building plans, so construction practitioners must be familiar with building materials to build a durable and durable structure. The most common materials that have been used from the past to the present and still maintain their place in the architectural and construction industry are wood, cement, metal, brick and concrete. These materials are widely used in various projects due to their high strength and low cost. In today’s modern world, modern building materials are produced and marketed by artisans who have innumerable advantages and advantages over traditional materials. Each of these materials, depending on their strength and performance, are used in different parts of the building. Introduction of different types of building materials and their application. Stay with us.
    Material types by gender
    If we are to classify building materials by sex we can refer to two categories of composite and simple materials.
    Simple materials
    Simple aggregates are called natural or synthetic aggregates whose ingredients are similar. Materials such as sand, bricks, cement, blocks and more. They are simple ingredients.
    Composite materials are natural or synthetic materials used in the production of some materials. All types of mortar, concrete, isogam, etc. are composite materials.
    Types of building materials based on production
    Each building material is manufactured and delivered to the consumer in a different way, but in general it can be said that the materials are either manufactured or used locally in the construction industry.
    Prefabricated building materials
    Prefabricated materials are materials that are manufactured in different factories or workshops and then transported to the project site. By using prefabricated materials, the overall cost of the project and its execution time are reduced. Also, by reducing the amount of construction waste, an effective step will be taken to protect the environment. Although these materials may not be flexible enough to undergo modifications and the early stages of their design and production are time consuming, the importance and efficiency of prefabricated materials in construction cannot be ignored. Prefabricated concrete slabs, prefabricated concrete walls, prefabricated plaster panels, ceramic tiles, types of blocks, bricks, etc. are among the materials that are provided to the manufacturer at the factory.
    In-situ building materials
    In situ materials As it is known, materials that are produced and used on site for construction projects are used. For example, mortar types, in situ bitumen, building skeletons, in situ frameworks, in-situ concrete, etc., can be mentioned as in-situ materials.
    Building materials and their application
    Soil is a combination of fine minerals caused by weathering and the destruction of rocks. The soils are divided into two types of adherent and non-adherent and have fine or coarse aggregates. The most superficial layer of the earth’s surface is soil type, which depends on the weather, the type of primary rock, the activity of organisms and the geographical area. Clay is one of the types of adhesive soils used in construction. This soil is the result of erosion of metamorphic and igneous rocks and is also called colloid because of its very small grains. The key to using this material is to choose a quality sample. Clay is the best material that can be used to control the temperature of a building. The use of clay helps to maintain heat in the building. Since the construction of houses is such that they penetrate the hot or cold air in summer and winter, the use of clay in building construction can be largely effective in stabilizing heat and cold and controlling temperature.
    Clay application
    Clay is used in the production of bricks, tiles, ceramics, mortar, plaster, lime mortar, straw, clay, etc. The main reason for using this material at an affordable price is its ease of use and its sluggishness.
    One of the materials that has been used in construction since ancient times is stone. Stones are hard and solid materials that consist of one or more minerals and are divided into three general categories of igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. The main element of all rocks is silica, but depending on the conditions in which they are formed, they will contain different minerals and ingredients. One of the advantages of using this material is its availability.
    Types of building stone
    The stones have different types that are selected according to their strength and performance and are used in many different ways. To get acquainted with the types of masonry stones you can find in nature include granite, marble, travertine, quartzite, marble, sandstone, gabbro and diorite. In the construction industry, stones are used in both natural (raw) and non-natural (raw) ways. Natural stones are river rocks, carcass stones, layered rocks, and mountain rocks, but the rocks are referred to as rocks that work in different ways depending on their application. . Tablets, polyhedral stones, crustaceans, two-tiered stones, etc. are among these types of rocks.

    Application of stone
    As you know in our country stone mines are abundant, so in most construction projects this material is used because of its reasonable price, high strength and easy availability. The high variety of rock makes it possible to use this material in various locations. Applications of durable and durable materials such as tunnels, bridges, flooring, foundry, facade, porcelain, interior decoration, stairs and more.
    Wood is a natural material that comes from the heart of nature. This material is used in the manufacture of elements used in construction. It is used in most buildings and in all kinds of weather conditions. Wood has many different types, so the quality of its different types varies. It is even possible that the wood from a sample of a plant or tree may have different qualities. Therefore, different types of wood are used for different purposes. Not bad to know that one of the factors affecting the quality of wood is its growth conditions.
    Types of wood
    In general, wood can be divided into two categories: natural and artificial:
    Natural wood
    Natural wood is referred to as forest tree wood, which has a natural color and texture and is found in many different types.
    Artificial wood
    Artificial wood is the product of natural wood processing and is more widely used than natural wood because of its resistance to water, heat, dust and high diversity. The price of artificial wood is more affordable than natural wood. Artificial wood is manufactured and supplied to customers in various types such as MDF, Polywood, Chipboard and HDF.
    Application of wood
    Wood is used for a variety of construction purposes, including door and window construction, load bearing members, building facades, flooring, walls, staircases, wooden beams and more.
    Brick is a type of material used in the construction industry that was traditionally obtained from cooking bricks. Traditional adobe bricks were manufactured in both manual and machine ways and provided to the consumer. Bricks can be considered as one of the oldest building materials produced by clay and other materials in high-temperature brick kilns.
    Types of brick kilns
    The bricks heat according to their raw materials and application in different furnaces, including Hoffman furnace, tunnel furnace, and furnace furnace.
    Types of bricks
    To get acquainted with the types of bricks you can visit the link below, but briefly the types of these commonly used building materials include:
    Ordinary brick
    Pressed brick, white brick and Kazakh brick are common bricks used in construction.
    Clay brick (clay block)
    Clay bricks are lighter in weight than ordinary bricks and are divided into two types of ceiling and wall. In principle, to make it easier to attach to the mortar, it is manufactured in a perforated form.

    Introduction to all types of building materials

    Welding bricks
    Welding bricks are among the bricks that are very resistant to impact, lip banding, abrasion, chemicals, frost and lip filling. Welding bricks used for construction eventually absorb up to 5% water.
    Refractory brick is highly resistant to heat, so it is used in environments with high temperatures. The main constituent of this brick is meltable clay. Refractory bricks are free of alkali or lime and are produced in different colors.
    Brick Paving
    Paving bricks are resistant to abrasion and water absorption and are used for paving various locations and flooring.
    Concrete is made from a mixture of water and cement, and the cement used is Portland cement. Special vibrators are used when making this product to prevent bubbles from forming which reduce concrete endurance.
    Concrete types
    heavy concrete
    The concrete used to make heavy aggregates is called heavy concrete. The weight of this concrete is between 1 and 2 kg / m3.
    Lightweight concrete is a concrete whose aggregates are light weight. If the concrete weight is less than 5 kg / m 2, it is considered to be lightweight concrete. Lightweight concrete is used to make concrete blocks.
    Porous concrete
    Concrete, which has multiple openings and holes for passage of water or air, is called porous concrete.
    Pro-concrete style
    Aerobic additives are used in the production of this concrete. Lightweight concrete is used in places where concrete can be thawed and solidified.
    High strength concrete
    High strength concrete has a strength above 1 MPa. When the water-to-cement ratio is reduced, the concrete becomes highly resistant. The mechanical properties of the concrete are very high and chemicals cannot damage it.
    Polymer concrete
    In this type of concrete, polymer materials are used to bond concrete aggregates, thus eliminating cement in its production. Polymeric materials significantly reduce the volume of cavities between aggregates.
    Self-compacting concrete
    Self-compacting concrete is a concrete that does not need vibration and is only compressed by its weight. This concrete is used for bulk concreting.
    Concrete application
    Concrete is a very durable material used for structural reinforcement. Concrete is used in different places according to its type but in general it is used for construction of bridges, dams, floors, tunnels, flooring and more.
    Iron is one of the materials used in construction because of its high strength and high plasticity. In principle, these materials are not used purely, but are used as alloys. Steel, copper, cast iron, aluminum, steel and… are alloys of iron that each have different uses. Iron works increase the durability and strength of the structure, but their only drawback is their lack of resistance to rust and corrosion. Hence, different coatings are used for it.
    Application of iron
    Iron is used in the manufacture of all kinds of construction tools, beams, sheets, doors, corners, rebar, etc.
    Glass is a light-weight, transparent material that is particularly useful in construction applications. Sand and silicates are used in the manufacture of this product. This material is very fragile, so stabilizers are used in its production to increase its resistance to various factors. Types of glass include colored glass, double glazed glass, fireproof glass, fireproof glass, secured glass, bent glass, reflex glass, opaque smart glass, etc. and are selected and used for different purposes depending on the strength. Opaque smart glass is one of the glassware used in today’s smart home. This glass adjusts the amount of light entering the building. For example, it automatically blurs during the day and returns to its original state at night. Smart glass significantly reduces the heating and cooling costs of a building.
    Types of glass
    Glasses are manufactured in different types for different applications. The most common glass used in the building is as follows:
    Colored glass
    The glass, as its name implies, comes in a variety of colors, absorbing the greatest amount of light and passing a small amount of it.
    Deluxe glass
    The glazed glass acts as a mirror. During the day, these jars block the view from inside the building but at night they lose their ability. Reflective glass reflects light spectrum and prevents it from entering the building.
    double glazed window
    The glass is made of two layers of glass, with space between them filled with argon gas. These jars play the role of thermal and sound insulation for the building and are very effective in reducing energy loss.

    Laminated Glass
    Unlike ordinary glass, when shattered by impact, the glass is not scattered around because it has a nylon layer between the layers of glass that holds the glass pieces together. Laminated glass is the most durable glass, consisting of several layers of glass that are bonded under pressure and heat by nylon layers.
    Tempered glass
    Secure glass is a type of glass that is produced by heat and cold. This glass can be used in places where heat and safety are important. In the construction industry, security glass is used to make door frames or places where human safety is significant.
    Bent glass
    The bent glass is of great interest to architects because of its arch shape. For example, the use of these glass panels for staircase wall panels demonstrates the incredible beauty of space.

    Application of glass
    Glass is used in door and window making, building facades, mirror making, skylights, glass tile, glass blocks, decorative elements, and more. These days, double glazing is used in door and window construction and reflex glass for building facades. The Curtain Wall facade is one of the all-glass views that give the city a unique look.
    Gypsum is a soft, white powder obtained from gypsum. It is derived directly from gypsum and no additives are used in its production.
    Types of plaster
    Plaster used for construction purposes are as follows:
    White Plaster
    The price of bleach plaster is very reasonable. This plaster is used to cover the surface and whiten the walls and the color is completely white.
    Micronized plaster
    This gypsum is produced from conventional gypsum processing. Micronized gypsum is used for killing, bleaching, plastering, etc.
    Ivory plaster
    Ivory plaster has a very fine grain size and long retention time. This material is used for killing the building, making prefabricated plaster panels, and so on.
    Chipboard plaster
    The adhesion of this type of gypsum is higher than other gypsum. This plaster can be applied on a variety of surfaces such as concrete blocks, foam surfaces, porous concrete surfaces and so on.
    Gypsum plasterboard
    It has good moisture resistance and prevents heat and sound transmission. Siwa gypsum comes from the combination of micronized gypsum with other additives. This type of plaster is suitable for underlayment.
    Application of plaster
    Plaster material is premature and used for mortar, whitewashing of walls and walls, building prefabricated panels, decorative elements and more.
    Cement is a widely used material composed of calcareous materials such as aluminum oxide and silicon. It is produced in a very soft powder and is either bulked or packaged. Combining cement with water creates a hard material called concrete, which plays an important role in the reinforcement of various structures.
    Types of cement
    Portland cement
    Portland cement is one of the best quality cement used in construction. These cements are of type 1 to 4, each of which can be used in different locations depending on the capabilities and capabilities required.
    Colored cement
    Colored cement is created by adding pigments to white cement. This cement creates a smooth and uniform surface, so it is the best option for building facade coatings. The colored cement has high mechanical strength and does not crack.
    Refractory cement
    Refractory cement retains its resistance to high temperatures and heat shock, corrosive substances, sulfates, abrasion, impact, acidic water and so on. This cement hardens earlier than Portland cement.

    Introduction to all types of building materials

    Application of cement
    Cement is the most important material in construction and it is used for many purposes such as the manufacture of prefabricated parts, the construction of tunnels and bridges, road construction, concrete production and so on.
    Mortar is a sticky material that is made from a combination of several materials and is used to bond different materials together. Filler and adhesive are the two main components of mortar that make up the largest volume of mixing material. In the production of mortar, additives including aeration, lubricants, pozzolans, pigments, water preservatives, etc. are used to enhance mortar properties. For example, pozzolanic materials are added to mortar to prevent sulfate attack. Various mortars are used in construction projects
    All kinds of mortar
    Blue mortar
    Mortars that are manufactured for use in aquatic environments and which are hard to come by when exposed to water, are called water mortars. Water mortars include sand and lime mortar, sand and cement mortar, sand and lime mortar, etc.
    Air mortar
    Mortars such as mud straw and gypsum mortar that are dried and air-dried are called air mortars.
    Special mortar
    If additives are added to ordinary mortars, they will have the potential to be used in various locations. For example, cement mortars or pozzolanic lime are mortars that are highly resistant to chemicals and sulphate attack due to the addition of pozzolanic materials, hence for environments where sulphates may be attacked. Are appropriate. Also by adding sealant materials to mortar it can be used in places where water is exposed, such as pools, water sources, etc.
    New building materials
    With the advancement of science and technology and the use of new techniques in building materials, we are seeing more and more quality materials. These materials extend the life of the structure and are resistant to various factors. One of the technologies used in the production of materials is nanotechnology. Nanotechnology refers to adding nanoparticles to materials and enhancing their quality and efficiency. Nanotechnologies are well resistant to climate change, exhaustion, rust, degradation, water intrusion, sulfate attack, etc., and today have a special place. Also, as people move toward building smarts and applying energy-efficient principles, new materials called smart materials with unique capabilities are introduced. Smart glass is one of the materials used to reduce the cost of cooling and heating and to avoid energy loss. Among the new materials that are produced by consumers with the knowledge and expertise of the construction industry and consumers are the following:
    New types of materials
    Sponge Concrete
    Sponge concrete has the ability to remove water and remove it due to having hollow holes. The use of materials such as fly ash, silica gas, and slag in the production of this concrete protects it against cracking and degradation. Sponge concrete is used for grass infiltration, directing rainwater to underground surfaces, and so on.
    Prefabricated plaster panels
    Prefabricated plaster panels are among the newest materials used not only for the construction of false walls but also as a type of acoustic and thermal insulation that prevent heat transfer and noise.
    Polycarbonate sheet
    These thermoplastic sheets look like glass and can be used as a glass replacement as a new product. The weight of the polycarbonate sheet is very low and available in a variety of colors. One of the special features of this product is resistance to the sun’s rays and preventing them from passing. The polycarbonate sheet is used in the fabrication of the false ceiling.
    Thermal tile
    Thermal tile is one of those tiles that changes color with changing ambient temperature. These tiles are decorative and can be used in places such as the kitchen and the bathroom. Thermal tile plays the role of an insulator and is of high strength and durability.
    Smart opaque glass
    Smart glass is made based on the latest technology in the world and is used in smart homes to prevent energy loss. The glass is opaque or light due to the light and heat requirements of the building and is used not only for doors and windows but also for partitioning.
    Aluminum panels
    These aluminum panels consist of two sheets of aluminum that are interconnected with polyethylene and because of their high resistance to heat, freezing, water, impact and … are a good option for building facades.
    • Price of building materials
    • The construction industry uses different materials and materials, each with a specific price. The price of building materials is calculated based on numerous factors including:
    • Physical properties
    • mass
    • Volume
    • Density
    • chemical properties
    • Resistance to acidic substances
    • Resistance to alkalis
    • Corrosion resistance
    • Resistance to gases
    • Weather resistance
    • And …
    • mechanical properties
    • Elasticity
    • Creep
    • pushing resistance
    • hardship level
    • Strain
    • And …

    01/21/2020 By smart dg land Uncategorized
  • Types of formatting in foundation implementation

    Types of formatting in foundation implementation

    The foundation or foundation of a building is one of the essential components of any structure and its task is to withstand the pressure caused by the columns and transfer this force to the ground. According to the type of structure and the location where it is to be carried out, the construction is performed under different conditions to provide the strength and strength of the structure. The foundation is the first stage of construction and the standards required for its implementation must be met. In previous posts, the builder introduced the types of building foundations, and now we are going to explain the foundation formatting for you. Stay with us.

    Foundation formatting
    In molding foundations, wood, metal, and brick molds are used, each with its own unique characteristics. In the formatting system, different panels are used for formatting, which can be created in different shapes depending on the type of structure and the execution plan. The foundation for the building after excavation needs to be axed and the mold positioned on the ground to allow the foundation to be laid. Among the points to consider in formatting a foundation are the following:

    The molds need to be firmly fixed and secured.
    Consideration of the dimensions of the foundation is very important in choosing the mold.
    The molds should be designed and manufactured so that they can be easily installed or opened quickly and easily. This will save you considerable time and money.
    Appropriate sealing should be done to prevent the loss of concrete sap.
    Mold oil should be used to improve the quality of concrete surface and mold strength.
    Molds must be of high durability so that they can withstand the pressure and loads without breaking or squeezing the concrete.
    When considering whether a foundation is a facade, attention must be paid to determining the quality of building materials and formatting.
    The molding and mounting of the molds must be such that the dimensions, shape and appearance of the concrete are achieved.
    Placing the foundation and adhering to the cover of reinforcement are also important points in forming a foundation.
    Templates must be selected in such a way that they can be transported and accommodated with available facilities.
    The templates used to lay the foundation include:

    Metal molding
    Metal molds have better strength and surface roughness than wood and brick molds. Nowadays, these types of molds are among the most common molds used in building construction because they can be easily transported and used in any type of operating system. The advantages of metal molding include high durability, ease of connection, high speed of operation, reusability and high productivity. Metal projects are the best option in projects where the dimensions and dimensions are low but the workload is high. Although the initial price of these molds is expensive, they are long lasting and can be used for many years. In order to prevent adverse weather effects on these molds, they should be even insulated.

    Types of formatting in foundation implementation

    Metal Mold Components
    What are known as metal molding components are various components for concrete molding. These components can be different in different projects. Examples of metallic mold components include cast iron bolt, case washer, ball strap, coarse-grained metal longitudinal clamp, double screw jack and so on.

    Brick molding
    This type of mold is used around the foundation, and after the concrete has been retained, remains in the desired location and is considered a permanent mold. To prevent the concrete from being squeezed by brick, a layer of nylon sheet before the concrete is required. Finish install on the wall, otherwise the bricks should be thoroughly sprayed. However, when spraying, the fact that water should not accumulate in molds should be kept in mind.

    In this type of formatting, the boundaries of the structural axes and molds must be specified by the surveyor. To avoid the slightest error in performing this type of formatting, it is advisable to nail the corners of the axes and templates and paint the border of the molds after it has been marked with a string. In addition, the ground surface must have a uniform alignment, which is done by mapping. When brick molding, a thin layer of cement must be applied to the inner wall of the mold, but plastic can also be used if not. The back of the brick mold can be filled with dirt.

    Wooden Molding
    The wooden mold, as its name implies, is made of wood. Molds are made enough to be transported to the desired location. Concrete molding in these molds requires sufficient care to prevent damage to their edges. Wooden molds are lighter in weight than metal molds, but their resistance to moisture is not high. The benefits of this type of mold include ease of execution and connections, low thermal coefficient and light weight. The only disadvantage of not using a wooden mold more than 3 times.

    Concrete Molding
    What should be taken into account in concrete molding is the strength of the molds and their proper bracing. To increase the durability of the scaffold, the use of longitudinal and transverse straps is required. Concrete molding should be designed to prevent the concrete from getting out of them. Molds must be cool to run concrete. If the formatting is hot, it reduces the quality of the concrete and changes its color. This causes the concrete to lose its proper shape.

    What is a Modular Mold?
    Another name for the concrete mold is the modular mold. This type of molding is manufactured in various sizes and is used in the molding of concrete structures.

    Concrete mold fittings
    Parts are needed to connect the concrete mold and create a suitable concrete structure. Components needed to do this are clamps, medium and long clamps, tube-to-tube clamps, ballet, cane ball, medium clamp, cast iron bracket and so on.

    Types of formatting in foundation implementation

    Ubot template
    The Ubot mold is used to create a hole in the concrete slab. Doing so can remove inefficient concrete and help lighten the slab. There are generally four models of Ubot templates, including single Ubot templates, Double Ubot templates, Inflatable UI templates, and Polystyrene Ubot templates.

    Price of Ubot template
    Buying a Ubot template is very affordable. Because this template is not particularly complex in structure. What is impressive about the price of the mold on the ceiling is the height of the mold. Other factors affecting the price of the Ubot template are project metrics.
    Waffle template
    One of the modern structures that can be used in construction is the waffle mold. The Waffle mold is an example of ceiling molds. These lattice-like molds cover a large part of the ceiling. Using these molds will not harm the construction equipment. These molds are cube-shaped and hollow. The benefits of using these molds include earthquake safety, fire resistance, sound and heat insulation, removal of blocks and joists, and reduced costs for fitting and molding. There are also disadvantages to using these templates. For example, since waffles are lightweight, it is not possible to use them in areas with high winds. It also needs proper soil to fill its molds.

    Run the waffle template
    Waffle molding is simple and requires no special equipment. In general, the steps to implement a waffle roof include roof cushioning, waffle molding, roof reinforcement, concrete casting and molding.

    Buy Waffle Molds and Price Waffle Mold Molds
    The price of waffle mold depends on several factors including the dimensions of the mold and its types. When purchasing waffle molds, you must first specify the types you want. Waffle molds are available in a variety of one-way and two-way molds, each priced differently.

    Slider format
    Slider Mold or Slider Mold is an example of formatting methods in which the mold moves forward or upwards at regular intervals. In this molding method, the surface of the sliding mold is in contact with the concrete and is not detached and, as the name implies, slides over the concrete. Types of formatting in foundation implementation

    Metal mold for concrete
    An example is the best form of molding in a concrete metal molding foundation. Because this type of formatting is more robust than other types. Other uses of metallic concrete are projects where the depth of foundation is very high.

    Column template
    In general, it can be said that the column is an important part of a structure and therefore its accuracy is very important, especially in the event of an earthquake. Column molds consist of two main components. These two components include mold walls or metal panels and coils or shackles.

    Molding board
    The use of molding boards is particularly important in the construction of concrete buildings. Since the concrete is smooth before being hardened, it needs mold to form. The use of molding boards was more common in the past and today the use of metal molding has somewhat reduced their use. The advantage of using molding boards is compared to metal molding. For example, using a molding board is less expensive and cost effective than a metal molding. Since these molds are lighter in weight, they have a higher velocity for the mold. Note to use quality formwork boards. Because if the boards are not of a good quality, they cannot withstand the weight of the concrete and this will cause the deformation of the concrete. Molding boards are used in molding foundations, column molding, main beam molding and ceiling molding.

    Molding equipment
    Required formatting equipment can include cane bolt, double-ended bolt, mid-bolt, double tube washer, cassette washer, long clamp, medium clamp, cast iron seal, metal seal, cast iron bolt, ceiling jack Ceiling, threaded jack jack, adjustable ceiling jack base and adjustable ceiling jack.

    Architectural concrete molding
    Since contemporary architecture requires different forms of texture and surface finish, the use of such material is particularly important. Therefore, the use of concrete can meet this need. In this regard, a concept is defined as architectural concrete. Architectural concrete is visible on the interior and exterior surfaces of the structure and therefore its appearance is important. One of the important processes in concrete structures is the use of formwork. Complexity of structures increases the need for special molds. This special method is designed for architectural concrete molding. What is important in the design of architectural concrete molding is the use of suitable material for its construction.

    Important points in the foundation vector
    When formatting, a number of things should be considered, including:

    If the molding is removed before the maintenance period is completed, concrete care must be taken after molding.
    The molding should be done step by step and should not be hit. Sudden loads and impacts should not be introduced to prevent concrete damage.
    The mold should be removed when the concrete is able to withstand the forces and not deform.
    Bearing molds and supports should not be removed until the concrete components are sufficient to withstand their loads and loads.

  • What can be done to flood the building? – Part One

    What can be done to flood the building? – Part One

    In April this year, floods occurred in several cities. This, for us – the inhabitants of the flood-prone area of ​​the world – was a bitter warning to think of a serious solution to flood building. Investigating the causes of building demolition reveals the need to rebuild worn-out buildings and standard construction and structural reinforcement.
    Human role in flooding
    Flood literally means flooding and flooding of the river. After heavy rains, when the river exceeds its normal level, it exits its natural bed and encompasses the surrounding plains. Flood is considered one of the most destructive natural disasters that destroys everything that goes on its way and goes away.
    Some think it is the wrath of nature that is emptied of man. But that’s not the case. At a glance, floods, unlike other natural disasters, such as earthquakes, do not suddenly fall on people and are predictable. It also has a beneficial impact on the land, as the remaining mud flushes the arable land.

    Meanwhile, the role that humans play in flooding should not be overlooked. Essentially one of the causes of flooding and damage to it is human intervention in nature. The destruction of plants and housing in the vicinity of the river, disregard for their position and relation to nature, failure to rebuild old buildings, and neglect of structural retrofitting and flood retrofitting are the greatest human errors that increase the risk of flooding.
    In particular, the removal of vegetation causes the earth to have less power to absorb water and thus flood with more force to continue. On the one hand, there is no standard construction, and these all increase the power of flood destruction.
    Iran, a country always at risk of floods
    Due to its specific geographical location and climatic characteristics, Iran is a country that is subject to numerous natural disasters. A study at the United Nations University in Japan found that Iran was among the ten countries most at risk of flooding.
    The results of another study show that our country is experiencing thirty out of 40 natural disasters and the most destructive of these is floods. Given these facts, there is no room for negligence to forget or erase the problem.

    The fact is that we rarely have a standard builder in urban architecture. On the one hand, you have to think of a solution for all these old buildings in the city. Turning to standard construction and retrofitting can improve the situation and lessen the damage

  • Four teams designed for international design competition

    Four teams designed for international design competition

    The four teams designated for the Houston Endowment Design International Contest were announced today by the Houston Endowment Designers and Real Estate Consultants and organizers. Selected teams should envision the organization’s new offices to design a private entity that meets the basic needs of the Greater Houston community. Four Finalist Teams (Alphabetically Ordered by Team Leader): Deborah Berke works with DAVID RUBIN Land Collective and Atelier Ten
    Kevin Dolly Architects with TLS, Productora and Transsolar Landscape Architecture Olson Kundig with Surfacedesign, Inc. Schaum / Shieh Architects with HKS Architecture and Andrea Kochran Landscape Architecture with Atelier Ten Quinn Architects Dolly Olson Kondig and … In June 2019 the competition was launched. The stage was so popular that 121 submissions were received from 354 firms. Charming Solo. The four teams selected will move on to their next approach, which should provide concept design maps for the project within 10 weeks. They had to create an inspiring and creative, 3,700-square-foot integrated building in their natural context, near downtown Houston, and compete with the modern structures of the area. This construction will include spaces for team and community partners such as workplaces, meeting spaces and attractive facilities. The winner is expected in November 2019 and the final project is due to open in May 2022. We had an inviting response to the invitations, and the special combination of project work, community participation, vision and the sights of many talented and creative teams nevertheless provided the final four groups with the strongest skills, knowledge and understanding of project goals. They showed

    Four teams designed for international design competition
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